Exam B1-B2 Topic Internet




Listening

 

 

ENGLISHSPANISH
NounsNombres
one trillion stepsun billón de pasos
an average timeun promedio de tiempo
text based websitewebsite escrita
Verbs and idiomsVerbos y expresiones
to become selectivevolverse selectivo
to raise the chancesaumentar las probabilidades
within one million stepsa menos de un millón de pasos
to browse the internetnavegar por internet
in the whole worlden todo el mundo
1200 sites have been launchedse han lanzado 1200 webs
to make your message go throughhacer llegar tu mensaje
in the middle of such a confusionen medio de este caos
to become alivedar vida
to bring life to your messagedarle vida a tu mensaje

 

Communication Over The Internet

Communication is changing and the big difference is time. Today, the internet is the biggest communication machine in the world. To find what we want we need to open several windows, but we don’t have the time to read it all, so we have to become selective.

In this universe the most powerful way to communicate is through video. Nowadays the video already represents 53 percent of the internet traffic, until 2015, it will rise to 93 percent. This means that it is easier to find 50 people watching a video in the street than it is to find an elephant in the room.

Promoting a product through video raises the chances to be bought by 85 percent. And it is not a big surprise that in 2011, on YouTube alone, were watched one trillion videos.

One trillion videos

Well if within one million steps you can go from the north to the south of Portugal, with one trillion steps you can go from the Earth to Jupiter.

An average time in a text based website is 42 seconds. Any site with a video is 5 minutes and 50 seconds. And it is easy to understand why.

When browsing the internet we prefer to click play than to read a big text. Let’s see..

During these two minutes, in the whole world, 1200 sites have been launched, and other millions of contents on this internet.

And what about your message? How will you make it go through?

In the middle of such a confusion, your message needs to become alive, and this is what we do. We bring life to your message. By the way, if this was a text, would you still be reading?

 

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Reading

Spyware

The Modern Menace – Spyware

Sometimes we install seemingly innocent programs, but unbeknown to us there are other programs waiting to be installed as well which are not innocent. Some piece of software just annoy us with adverts we can get rid of, but others can harm your computer or even your bank account by giving away crucial information about you. Let’s take a deeper look at this software.

 

The biggest problem with Spyware that makes it most irritating is that is places itself on your computer without you ever knowing. Spyware works in the background of your computer to the point where your computer system will become sluggish. You won’t know it is there until you either do an investigation of your computer processes, or notice it listed on your program register.

 

Most spyware will give up when it is found, you just uninstall it, scan you computer for more of them using remover software and then you are clean. However there are some which make it intentionally difficult for you to remove, I am talking REALLY difficult to remove! Don’t ask me why, it is not like you are just going to leave it there potentially giving out all your details across the web, but that shows the type of people who make these programs.

 

Spyware gets its title because it monitors your browser. In other words all of the websites you view are taken note of by the Spyware so that it can learn your diversions, activities, and even online buys. With this data the Spyware can forward tailored notices to your PC.

 

Pop up ads are likely the most bothersome aspect of being infected. The notices can pop up on the exterior of a web browser, or source from the webpage. Third party advertisers hire these programmers to exhibit their notices to a specific group.

 

This software can also harvest your personal details off your computer, or the websites where you fill in your details. Websites have named areas where you put your details, software can recognise you are putting your address in by the name of this area and remember it to transmit later.

 

People online can make money by directing you to sites of interest, which then pay the person who sent you there by tracking the process using cookies (all legit). Now these scammers can replace the cookies with their own (highly illegal) so that honest hard-working people online are cheated out of their money.

 

It is not all doom and gloom, there are programs out there that are perfectly legitimate and harmless, like the Alexa toolbar which I have on my computer. I allow it to track my activities willing and I know it is safe. However sadly 95% of the software out there has ulterior motives and can be used to steal from and manipulate you, that is why there are calls to ban this scourge completely.

 

(Article Source: <a href=”http://www.articlelogy.com/”>Articlelogy.com)</a>

 

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Vocabulary

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[table]
<table>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><b>ENGLISH</b></td>
<td><b>SPANISH</b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><b>Nouns</b></td>
<td><b>Nombres</b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>menace</td>
<td>amenaza</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>spyware</td>
<td>programa espía</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>bank account</td>
<td>cuenta bancaria</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>tailored notices</td>
<td>anuncios a medida</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>pop up ads</td>
<td>ventanas emergentes</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>scammer</td>
<td>estafador</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>scourge</td>
<td>azote</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><b>Adjectives and adverbs</b></td>
<td><b>Adjetivos y adverbios</b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>seemingly</td>
<td>aparentemente</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>unbeknown</td>
<td>desconocido para</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>sluggish</td>
<td>muy lento</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>bothersome</td>
<td>molesto</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>legit</td>
<td>legal</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>willing</td>
<td>voluntario</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><b>Verbs and idioms</b></td>
<td><b>Verbos y expresiones</b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to install</td>
<td>instalar</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to get rid of</td>
<td>deshacerse de</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to harm your computer</td>
<td>dañarte el ordenador</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to give away</td>
<td>revelar</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>let’s take a deeper look at</td>
<td>vamos a profundizar en</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to do an investigation of</td>
<td>investigar sobre</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to uninstall</td>
<td>desinstalar</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to give out all your details</td>
<td>divulgar todos tus datos</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to monitor your browser</td>
<td>rastrear tu navegador</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to forward</td>
<td>reenviar</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to harvest</td>
<td>extraer</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>to cheat out of their money</td>
<td>apoderarse ilícitamente de tu dinero</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>it is not all doom and gloom</td>
<td>no todo es tan apocalíptico</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
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Writing

WRITING SKILLS

Welcome to the 3rd phase of your 2-hour session!

Please click on the relevant tab, selecting the exam you are preparing for.

You can either:

  • Complete 2 writing assignments. You have 40 minutes if you wish to complete one now. The 2nd assignment you can complete at home.
  • You can also watch our VIDEO tutorials during the next 40 minutes if you prefer to complete the Writing at home.

Hand them in, at reception, in your language school.

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IELTS (Academic)

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For IELTS (Academic format), please select the ESSAY topic (250 words: in 40 minutes. Counts for 2/3 of the Writing score) and GRAPH DESCRIPTION (150 words: in 20 minutes. Counts for 1/3 of the Writing score). You will have 1h to complete both tasks on the day of the exam.

  • ESSAY: It’s better to find information in a library than on the internet. Discuss the pros and cons.
  • GRAPH DESCRIPTION:

Technology Life Cycle (Source: Wikipedia) & Social Networking Service (Source: Wikipedia).

This visual aid shows the adoption stages of a new product.  Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

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IELTS (General)

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For IELTS (General format), please select the ESSAY topic (250 words) and LETTER (150 words). You will have 1h to complete both tasks on the day of the exam.

  • ESSAY: It’s better to find information in a library than on the internet. Discuss the pros and cons.
  • LETTER: For you, it is more important to study science and technology than to study the arts and humanities. Write a letter to your parents explaining your choice.

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FCE

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For FCE, please select 2 of the following: ESSAY, LETTER/EMAIL, REPORT, or REVIEW. You will have 1h20 to complete the tasks on the day of the exam.

  • ESSAY: It’s better to find information in a library than on the internet. Discuss the pros and cons.
  • LETTER: For you, it is more important to study science and technology than to study the arts and humanities. Write a letter to your parents explaining your choice.
  • REVIEW: You have just downloaded a new app for your phone or a new piece of software for your computer. Write a product review.
  • REPORT: Write a report on the growth in social network patents, based on the graph.

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CAE

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For CAE, please select 2 of the following: ESSAY, LETTER/EMAIL, PROPOSAL, REPORT, or REVIEW. You will have 1h30 to complete the tasks on the day of the exam.

  • ESSAY: It’s better to find information in a library than on the internet. Discuss the pros and cons.
  • LETTER: For you, it is more important to study science and technology than to study the arts and humanities. Write a letter to your parents explaining your choice.
  • REVIEW: You have just downloaded a new app for your phone or a new piece of software for your computer. Write a product review.
  • PROPOSAL: Write a proposal to your co-workers on how to avoid spyware and viruses on their work computers.
  • REPORT: Write a report on the growth in social network patents, based on the graph.


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TOEFL

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For TOEFL, please select the ESSAY topic and write a second essay response based on either the READING or LISTENING passage of the lesson. You will have 50 minutes to complete both essays on the day of the exam.

  • ESSAY: It’s better to find information in a library than on the internet. Discuss the pros and cons.
  • ESSAY: Essay response based on either the reading or listening passage of today’s lesson (Internet): With the development of spyware and risks presented to privacy online and offline, how do you view the future of Internet and privacy itself?

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What are the different Writing Formats? Here is a brief reminder:

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REPORTS

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The goal of a report is to offer as accurately as possible the full sense of the original book or research, but in a more condensed form. A report should be accurate, objective, concise and clear.

You must remember the following:

  • 4 paragraphs minimum (1 introduction, 2 body paragraphs and 1 conclusion)
  • Each paragraph must have a heading (explaining what it is about)
  • You must address the report to someone
  • You must have a heading for the report: a subject (a title that clearly describes what the report is about)
  • Adding a date to the report is not mandatory
  • You must use formal language (so no contracted forms or slang)

Template Report:

To: ………………………………………………………..

From: ……………………………………………………

Subject: A report on: ……………………………………………….

Date: ……………/…………………/……………………..

Introduction: The objectives of this report are to ……………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..

(Subject of paragraph 1) Title: …………………………………………………….

Paragraph 1: (findings and methodology) The method / procedure used was …..

…………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………

(Subject of paragraph 2) Title: …………………………………………………….

(Paragraph 2): (findings and methodology)

The main findings were that ……………………………………………………………………………………….…

…………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………

Conclusion or recommendation(s): The main conclusion that can be drawn is that ……………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………….

I therefore recommend ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

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REVIEWS

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The main difference between the report and the review is that you give your opinion in a review. A review is to express your point of view on a book/film/etc., being informative yet giving an assessment of value based on your technical knowledge of the matter. You have to take into account your audience and the number of words required. Make sure that you make your experience relatable and that your draw comparisons so as for your readers to be able to judge the product on its own merits. When writing a review, there is a firm structure to be respected:

  • Brief introduction with the Title and Sub-Title
  • Introduction of contents (brief summary)
  • Opening paragraph expressing your “controversial” point of view: using a chatty, informal style
  • Assessment of value (Body of the review) with a comparison with others (positive and negative)
  • Conclusion (which echoes the introduction and gives your opinion)

Template Review:

Title: i.e. A place to be avoided / A place to be visited ASAP…

Introduction: I recently (summarise the film / experience etc. and give your general opinion) ……….…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..

Paragraph 1: (your viewpoint on one aspect/theme) What I most liked was ………

…………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………

Paragraph 2: (your viewpoint on one aspect) What I most disliked was ………………

…………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………

Conclusion or recommendation(s): To conclude ….…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…..……… ……………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………….

I therefore recommend ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

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ESSAYS

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One of the goals of an essay is to present your arguments and examples in an structured manner.

You must remember the following:

  • 4 paragraphs minimum (1 introduction, 2 or 3 body paragraphs and 1 conclusion)
  • Each paragraph of the body must develop a different argument
  • You must provide reasons and examples for each of your arguments
  • You must use formal language (so no contracted forms or slang)
  • The conclusion is also an important paragraph as that is where you will express your opinion clearly.

Template Essay:

Introduction: It is often believed that………………. In this essay we will discuss how …….……….…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….…….………….

…………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..

Paragraph 1: (your viewpoint on one aspect/theme) From my personal experience ………………….………………………………………….………………………………………….………………

…………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………

Paragraph 2: (your viewpoint on one aspect) Another aspect ……………….…….…………

…………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………

Conclusion: To conclude ….…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…………….…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…..……… ……………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………….

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ARTICLES

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Reviews are articles expressing a clear opinion and where in order to convey your interpretation of the facts, humorous ways such as tongue-in-cheek can be used. Articles will also address an audience using rhetorical questions and other forms to create effects or make a statement. Getting and maintaining your reader’s interest is your objective.

You must remember the following:

  • 4 paragraphs minimum (1 introduction, 2 or 3 body paragraphs and 1 conclusion)
  • Give your article a title
  • Speak directly to your readers
  • Give your opinion when appropriate
  • Give examples when appropriate
  • You can use humour when appropriate

Template Article:
Title: i.e. A transcendent experience

Introduction: I recently (summarise the film / experience etc. and give your general opinion) ……….…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..

Paragraph 1: (your viewpoint on one aspect/theme) What I most liked was ………
…………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………

Paragraph 2: (your viewpoint on one aspect) What I most disliked was ………………
…………………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………

Conclusion or recommendation(s): To conclude ….…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…..…..……… ……………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………….
I therefore recommend ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

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STORIES

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Writing a story requires a beginning, a rising action, a middle or climax, a falling action and an end.

You must remember the following:

  • 4 paragraphs minimum (1 background information, 2 are the main parts of the story and the final 1 is the climax or key moment of the story)
  • Give your story a title
  • Use the words given to you (you can’t change them at all): you can choose where to insert them (at the beginning or at eh end of your story for instance).
  • Don’t forget to use the past tenses to tell stories – in most cases (past continuous for description: The sun was shining… / past perfect for events prior to simple past: She had locked the door before she left.).
  • You can use contractions (haven’t, doesn’t…)
  • Include some direct speech when possible (She asked: “Why aren’t they here yet?”)
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LETTERS/EMAILS

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Before writing a letter, please consider whom you are writing to and the purpose of the letter:

  • a complaint (formal)
  • a suggestion (formal), advice (informal)
  • an application (formal)
  • an enquiry (formal), asking questions (informal)
  • an informal, personal catch-up
  • good wishes (informal), congratulations (formal)

General tips for a successful writing piece:

  • check you are using the right tone: formal or informal
  • make sure that you include all the information that you have been asked to cover
  • ensure that you completing the task based on the requirements
  • proofread your work to remove any typos or other mistakes before submitting your work
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PROPOSAL

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You generally write a proposal when you need something that requires permission: you need to make a purchase for a company, you need funding, you are working for a company and wish to do a project or write a paper etc..

Therefore a proposal can be either formal or informal depending on whom you are addressing and what kind of company you are working for (a local school, an international firm.)…

In order to present your idea and ask for action to be taken on that idea, here is the format you must follow:

  • State the purpose of your proposal (keeping it concise). i.e.: Subject: ……….
  • Give some background information so as to give better understanding of the problem you wish to solve.
  • Give this paragraph a title. i.e.: Purpose:…..
  • State your suggestions to solve that problem. Your solution is the purpose of the proposal.
  • Give this paragraph a title. i.e.: Solving the problem of…. : I suggest that we….
  • Run through the costs that will be involved in this project / action. Give this paragraph a title. i.e.: A long-term solution to…: The costs incurred….
  • Write a conclusion stating the problem again, the proposed solution and overall costs, timeframe etc. Your conclusion must end on a positive note so as to encourage the reader to act on the proposal.

Here is a more in-depth description of the content of the proposal:
Executive Summary: Some people consider this the most important part of the proposal because it is the reviewer’s first impression. Even though it appears first, write it last because it is a summary of the proposal. The executive summary is a concise description of the project covering objectives, need, methodology, and dissemination plans. It should identify the expected outcomes of the project. An executive summary should be less than 750 words and fit on one page.
Need: Well-documented description of the problem to be addressed and why it is important. Use support information, statistics and/or succinct statements to make your point. This section should describe the significance, timeliness, and importance of the project. Make a compelling case for it. Why should the sponsor give you funding?
Objectives: Indicate the expected outcomes of the project, preferably in measurable terms. This shows what you will do, for whom, by how much, and by when. When the project is completed, you will be able to evaluate it and determine whether the project succeeded or not in achieving its objectives. Identify short-term and long-term objectives.
Methods: The critical part of the proposal and is the longest part and worth the most points. It is a plan of action for how the objectives will be achieved. This section usually starts with a description of the overall approach, its relevance, effectiveness, and innovativeness. Then it gives details on methodology, the population being addressed, and how anticipated problems will be managed.
Evaluation: Describes the means by which the grantee and funding agency will know if the project has accomplished its objectives. It may also describe plans for collecting additional information to improve the project. What is the purpose of the evaluation, what data will be collected, how will it be analysed, and how will the results be reported?
Plans for disseminating products and findings to the sponsor and to the community at large can also be described in this section. How will the results of this programme be disseminated?
Qualifications: This section outlines the ability of the grantee to successfully complete the project. Show prior related experience, describe facilities, and equipment available. Importantly, list key personnel who will work on the project and include their resumes. Also mention any consultants who will work on the project, and give evidence (a letter, e- mail) that they have agreed to participate.
Timetable: Describe how long (days, months) specific tasks or components of the project will take. If possible, include a milestone chart in this section.
Budget: Show the annual and overall cost of the project. A detailed budget should be divided into categories such as salaries, fringe benefits, travel, supplies, equipment, etc. Indirect costs should also be shown. Sub-categories should provide a line item detailed breakdown of the funds requested. This should be accompanied with a budget narrative to clarify and justify the figures. If matching funds are to be provided by the grantee, identify the amount and budget category.

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GRAPHS

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In order to describe a graph, you have to identify the key information featured and within which type of graph the information is presented.
You have several types of visual aids used in the IELTS Academic Writing module:

  • a pie chart
  • a table
  • a line graph
  • a flow chart
  • 2 visual aids that complement one another, etc.

Although there might be a great variety of visual aids, the same principles of organisation and steps for writing the graph description apply:

  • Read the title and labels on the graph.
  • Read the instructions.
  • Try and note down some synonyms for key words / phrases.
  • Start writing your introductory sentence (avoid writing word for word phrases or information provided with the graph).
  • Analyse the information provided in the graph(s), always trying to find an overall trend (what are the units, what is the time frame, what are the changes?): What is the significant information? Are there any obvious exceptions to general trends?
  • Now you can write your introductory paragraph.
  • Now plan your body paragraphs (if there is enough data, you can dedicate 1 paragraph to 1 main trend).
  • Now you can write your 2 or 3 body paragraphs describing and analysing the main trends. It is important to include key figures and information.
  • Write your conclusion restating the main trend(s) in the graph/ visual aid, using different words (= paraphrasing).
  • Don’t forget to proofread your work before submitting it, so as to check spelling, syntax as well as organisation (cf. Use of linking words, indents…).

Graph Description Template:

The graph shows/illustrates/analyses/summarises the number of …. from (i.e. location, age group, profession) …… for the years from ………. to ………… . We can clearly see that there has been a large increase in the number of ………… while figures for ………… from ……………….. as well as ……………. have only shown a slight growth.

The numbers ……….. have risen considerably over this time period. In (year)……… there were nearly …………………., similar to the figure for …………….. and just over double that for ……………………………. . Since (year) ………………… there has been a steady increase.

The figures for ……………….. from other parts of the world show similar trends; first a dip ………………… from (year) …… to (year)………….., then slow growth from (year) …… to (year), while the corresponding figures for ………….. were roughly ………………….. and ………………….. respectively.

To sum up, in recent years …………………………… has become increasingly popular ………………………., especially for …………………………………………… who currently outnumber those from ………………….. and …………….. combined.

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