Family or kinship vocabulary
In Spanish we express family relationships with specific names. We see the family tree of any family:
Juan y María is the first generation of this family. Juan is Maria’s husband or husband, and she is Juan’s wife or wife. To encompass both we can say husbands.
Juan and María have three children: Susana and Ana are the daughters and Toni is the son. The three of them are brothers but Toni is the brother of Susana and Ana, and they are Toni’s sisters. Again, we have two words that generally express the masculine and feminine genders.
Susana is married to Alberto and Toni with Carmen. Alberto and Carmen are brothers-in-law among them. In addition, Alberto is the brother-in-law of Toni and Ana, and Carmen is the sister-in-law of Ana and Susana.
Alberto is married to Susana and that is why he is the son-in-law of Juan and María, who are also his in-laws (father-in-law, mother-in-law). Carmen is the daughter-in-law of Juan and María, who are also her in-laws.
Alberto and Susana have a daughter named Carla. Carla is the niece of Ana, Toni and Carmen, who are also her uncles (uncle, aunt).
Toni and Carmen have two children, Pedro and Pablo. They are the nephews of Ana, Susana and Alberto, who are also their uncles.
Carla is the cousin of Pedro and Pablo, who are also her cousins.
Carla, Pedro and Pablo are the grandchildren (grandson, granddaughter) of Juan and María, who are also their grandparents (grandfather, grandmother).
When in Spanish we want to compare things, people, animals or different realities, we can do it in three ways: in superiority, equality and inferiority. We always need at least two subjects to compare, one at the beginning and another at the end of the sentence.
When we compare in superiority, the first subject is at a higher level than the second in some aspect. We use the structure more … than:
-Madrid is bigger than Barcelona.
-Madrid has more monuments than Barcelona.
-My brother is taller than you.
-My brother has more friends than me.
With the verb to be we need adjectives and with the verb to have we need names to be able to compare. In addition, we have two special forms of superiority with the verb to be: better than (more good than), worse than (more bad than):
-I’m better than you.
– This restaurant is worse than the other one.
When we compare in equality, two subjects are at the same level in some aspect. Again we use, above all, the verbs to be and to have:
-My father is as handsome as my mother.
– These strawberries are as expensive as those oranges.
-Our house has as much space as your house.
-This room has as much light as the other.
-Your parents have as many cars as my parents.
-Your mother has as many jewels as my sister.
It depends on the verb, we use a different structure. If we compare the verb with equality, the first word has the same gender and number as the name it accompanies.
With the verb being the structure never changes.
We can also compare actions or verbs in equality, not only with names or adjectives. In this case, the structure is different:
-In England people drink as much as in Spain.
-There is as much work here as in China.
The comparison in inferiority expresses that a subject is at a lower or lower level than another. Again the verbs appear to be and have:
-I’m less dumb than you (= smarter)
-The Spaniards are less nervous than the English (= calmer)
-Your cousin has less toys than her.
-This car has less power than the other.
We always use the structure less … than. But when we compare in inferiority we have another possibility. We can use the equality structure in negative:
-I’m not as stupid as you.
-The Spaniards are not as nervous as the English (= calmer)
-Your cousin does not have as many toys as she does.
-This car does not have as much power as the other one.
In the same way, we compare actions in inferiority with the structure of equality in negative:
-In Spain people do not drink as much as in England.
-There is not as much work here as in China.