1/ Sentence Practice
The security checks which are carried out are really thorough. The people who work at the airport are really professional.
The number of checks that they carry out are extensive.
Look, there is the lady whose room was next to us at the hotel.
The Wright brothers were the first pilots who flew an airplane. Pioneers are men who change the way we live.
I think they are among the inventors that I admire most.
Let us enjoy the take off which is one of the things that you like so much about flying.
Guerlain is one of the brands that I like the most.
Coco Chanel was the lady who made cosmetics so popular today.
True, No 5 was one of the first perfumes which Chanel made famous.
There’s a new perfume by Chanel of which I’ve heard very good things.
Look at the in-flight magazine, the one that is in front of you.
The photos which were taken for this magazine are amazing.
Duty-free is the name of products which are sold on airplanes free of tax and therefore at a cheaper price.
The price of products that are sold on planes is lower than a that in the local shops.
- Relative Clauses
- security checks
- to carry out
- who work
- at the airport
- The Wright brothers
- to fly
- The pilot flew
- to be among
- the inventor
- to admire
- Let us enjoy
- the take-off
- which is one of the things
- to like so much
- the brands
- the most
- the lady
- to make popular
- so popular
- which made famous.
- of which
- good things.
- Look at
- the in-flight magazine
- the one that is
- in front of you
- The photo
- to be taken
- take a photo
- a product
- free of tax
- at a cheaper price
- is lower than
- in the local shops
Relative pronouns and relative clauses
What is a clause?
It is a grammatical unit consisted of a subject and predicate or verb, ranked smaller than a sentence because it is not always complete in itself.
There are different types of clauses: dependent and independent:
1/ independent = expresses a complete meaning = a sentence
2/ dependent = expresses an incomplete meaning = subordinate clause
Different combinations of clauses are possible to create a compound sentence:
1/ independent clause 1 + independent clause 2 = main clause 1 + main clause 2
“We went to the park and the ride was broken.”
“I really wanted the tomato soup, but they only had the leek soup.”
2/ main clause + subordinate clause
= independent clause + dependent clause
“I found a cat that was abandoned.”
“She is the colleague who helped me with the presentation.”
How to create a relative clause?
A main clause can be a sentence on its own: He lives in this neighbourhood,
whereas a subordinate clause needs a main clause to exist, i.e.: which is very quiet. This subordinate clause is joined to the main clause via a relative pronoun.
He lives in the neighbourhood which is very quiet.
I enjoy sitting by the fireplace that is in the lounge.
I saw a movie star who is world famous.
What is a relative pronoun?
which, that, who, whom, why, whose, where, whoever, what, …
They are used to join 2 clauses: 1 subordinate clause and a main clause.
If we want 2 sentences to meet and merge into one we need a relative pronoun to show the link.
Depending on what the subordinate clause is giving more information on, we will use one relative pronoun or another:
who, whom, which, that, whose…
Let’s learn our relative pronouns and relative clauses:
1/ For objects:
which / that = interchangeable
We take an independent sentence: “That is the new PC”
and we add more information about that object, so we add a relative pronoun and its clause
which / that
That is the new PC which/that I told you about.
In spoken English we can remove the relative pronoun: That is the new PC I told you about.
2/ For people:
who / that (subject)
whom / that (object)
That is the neighbour who / that just moved in. (we use “WHO” when the subject of both clauses is identical)
That is the neighbour whom / that I met yesterday. (“the neighbour” is the object of the relative / subordinate clause)
In spoken English we don’t use “whom” as much as we should, instead we use “that” or “who”. But remember:
who / that (subject)
& whom / that (object)
3/ For possession:
That is the student whose grades have gone up. (The grades belong to the student)
4/ For place:
in which / at which
That is the place where I left it.
That was the building in which the fire started.
That is the bus stop at which you must wait.
5/ For time:
That is the moment when I left my job.
That is the time at which I go to bed.
Why use relative pronouns and what to watch out for?
Use and common mistakes:
1/ Avoid repetition:
He has just bought a house. It is new. He really likes it. (REPETITIVE)
> He has just bought a house which is new and that he really likes. (BETTER)
2/ Differentiate object and subject:
WRONG: He is a person which I trust
CORRECT: He is a person that I trust. / He is a person whom I trust.
3/ A relative pronoun replaces a noun group. You don’t need 2 pronouns!
WRONG: This is a house that he really likes it.
CORRECT: This is a house that he really likes.
4/ Be careful with the spelling of “which”!
It is not “witch” or “whitch” or “wich”!
Preguntas y repuestas
Questions and Answers
Could I have one of the sweets which are in your bag?
The number of times that you ask me that everyday.
Do you realise whose car that is?
I think it belongs to Horace Pigson, the famous politician.
Does duty free mean that the products are cheaper?
It depends, at Valencia Airport the wine is more expensive than in the supermarket.
Where did you have your photo taken?
There is a machine at the airport.
Is that the series of which you have spoken so much about?
That’s the one.
Is that the car, the one that is on the right of the building?
That is the one that I told you about.
Are you the man who shouted at me from across the road.
You’ve got a nerve, I certainly didn’t.
Sorry but is this your dog that is barking?
That is improbable as I have not got a dog.
Have they recovered the paintings which were stolen?
Yes, they were hidden behind the gallery.
Is he the man whose sister came by earlier?
Yes that is her brother.